Impact of LED and weak EM-fields on animals/honeybees


There are multiple high-impact works devoted to impact of light (e.g. blue light) on animal cells [1]. There are publications related to wound healing of rats under influence of polychromatic LED light [2]. The quantitative results showed that red LED and green LED showed a significant increase in fibroblast numbers (fibroblasts secrete substances essential for wound healing) when compared with the control group [3].  Research results lead also to conclude that both red and IR-LED light caused increased mast cell degranulation and that IR-LED light resulted in a greater number of mast cells [4]. A total of 260 one-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were exposed to red light (RL), green light (GL), blue light (BL), and white light (WL), respectively, by using a light-emitting diode system. The effects of monochromatic light on the immune response (peripheral blood T lymphocytes, elevation in the serum anti-Newcastle disease virus level) were studied. The results indicated that proliferation of in the GL group was significantly increased (by 80.8 and 54.8%) compared with those in the RL and BL groups. At 49 d of age, however, the proliferation response was significantly increased in the BL group compared with the RL group (26.9%, P< 0.05). These results suggest that GL and BL enhance the immune response better than RL, and that BL may play a role in alleviating the stress response in broilers [5].

Impact of the EM fields is mainly investigated in the research of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). The behavior under weak irradiation is primarily related to a new phenomenon of sudden disappearance of bees with little sign of disease or infection - colony collapse disorder is the name given to this problem. This phenomenon is linked with increase in the usage of electronic gadgets has led to electropollution of the environment. Honeybee behavior and biology has been affected by electrosmog since these insects have magnetite in their bodies which helps them in navigation. Several works, e.g. [6] explore the performance of honeybees in cellphone radiation exposed and unexposed colonies. The behavior of exposed foragers was negatively influenced by the exposure, there was neither honey nor pollen in the colony at the end of the experiment [6]. Significant variations in the behaviour of Apis mellifera under the influence of non-ionizing radiation were tested. The presented data showed significant differences in returning, 39.7% of the non-irradiated bees came back compared to 7.3% of the irradiated ones. The main emphasis of this study was the investigation on significant changes in the foraging flight under electromagnetic radiation influence [7]. In relation to magnetic field, honeybees undergo iron biomineralization, providing the basis for magnetoreception. The presence of superparamagnetic magnetite in iron granules formed in honeybees is shown and subscribed to the notion that external magnetic fields may cause expansion or contraction of the superparamagnetic particles in an orientation-specific manner, relaying the signal via cytoskeleton. [8]. Several works, e.g. [9] [7] explore mechanisms for disturbance of honey bee colonies under electric fields. Proposed mechanisms fell into two categories: direct bee perception of enhanced in-hive E fields and perception of shock from induced currents. It is concluded that biological effects seen in bee colonies under a transmission line are primarily the result of electric shock from induced hive currents. This evaluation is based on the limited effects of E-field exposure in tunnels, the observed disturbance thresholds caused by shocks in tunnels, and the ability of hives exposed under a transmission line to source currents 100–1,000 times the shock thresholds [9].



[1] Anthony R. Cashmore, Jose A. Jarillo, Ying-Jie Wu, Dongmei Liu, Cryptochromes: Blue Light Receptors for Plants and Animals, Science 30 April 1999, Vol. 284 no. 5415 pp. 760-765, DOI: 10.1126/science.284.5415.760

[2] Dr. Farouk A.H. Al-Watban and Bernard L. Andres. Polychromatic LED in Oval Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Non-diabetic and Diabetic Rats, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. February 2006, 24(1): 10-16. doi:10.1089/pho.2006.24.10.

[3] Ana Paula Cavalcanti de Sousa, Jean N. Santos, João A. dos Reis, Jr., Taís A. Ramos, José de Souza, Maria Cristina T. Cangussú, and Antônio L.B. Pinheiro. Effect of LED Phototherapy of Three Distinct Wavelengths on Fibroblasts on Wound Healing: A Histological Study in a Rodent Model, Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. August 2010, 28(4): 547-552. doi:10.1089/pho.2009.2605.

[4] Juliana Santos de Carvalho Monteiro, Susana Carla Pires Sampaio de Oliveira, Maria de Fátima Ferreira Lima, José Augusto Cardoso Sousa, Antônio Luiz Barbosa Pinheiro, and Jean Nunes dos Santos, Effect of LED Red and IR Photobiomodulation in Tongue Mast Cells in Wistar Rats: Histological Study Photomedicine and Laser Surgery. November 2011, 29(11): 767-771. doi:10.1089/pho.2011.3035.

[5] D. Xie, Z. X. Wang, Y. L. Dong, J. Cao, J. F. Wang, J. L. Chen and Y. X. Chen,  Effects of monochromatic light on mucosal mechanical and immunological barriers in the small intestine of broilers Poult. Sci. 2011 90:2697-2704

[6] Changes in honeybee behaviour and biology under the influence of cellphone radiations, Ved Parkash Sharma and Neelima R. Kumar, CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 98, NO. 10, 25 MAY 2010, 1376-1378

[7] Kimmel, Stefan; Kuhn, Jochen; Harst, Wolfgang; Stever, Hermann, Electromagnetic Radiation: Influences on Honeybees (Apis mellifera) (link to .pdf paper)

[8] Hsu C-Y, Ko F-Y, Li C-W, Fann K, Lue J-T (2007) Magnetoreception System in Honeybees (Apis mellifera). PLoS ONE 2(4): e395. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000395

[9] Bindokas, Vytautas P. and Gauger, James R. and Greenberg, Bernard, Mechanism of biological effects observed in honey bees (apis mellifera, L.) hived under extra-high-voltage transmission lines: Implications derived from bee exposure to simulated intense electric fields and shocks, Bioelectromagnetics, 9, 3, Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company, doi 10.1002/bem.2250090310, 285--301, 1988



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