Sound/ultrasound, longitudinal waves and cellular information transfer


Sound signals of high frequency and large amplitude have impact of chemical reactions [1]. In several experiments chrysanthemum seedlings are treated by sound wave with a certain intensity (100 db) and frequency (1000 Hz) for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days, respectively, and each day for 60 min. The results show that the activity of roots and the content of soluble protein increase greatly under sound stimulation [2]. Several authors undertook an investigation of the sound effects on paddy rice seeds in the germination index, height of stem, relative increase rate of fresh weight, rooting ability, activity of root system and the penetrability of cell membrane. The experiment results show that 400 Hz and 106 dB are the ‘best frequency and intensity’, which certainly promote the growth of plant [3]. Not only sound but also ultrasound is one of methods for intensifying the performance of live biocatalysts. Ultrasonication is generally associated with damage to cells but evidence is emerging for beneficial effects of controlled sonication on conversions catalyzed by live cells [4]. There are also known attempts of ultrasound stimulation of micro-organisms for enhanced biodegradation [5]. In several experiments, the growth rate of roots is reduced by exposure to ultrasound [6]. Multiple works survey effects of weak ultrasound signals on plants and animals, see e.g. a review [7]. There are also multiple works that investigate intracellular or extracellular information transfer [11], e.g. via spinning processes [8], longitudinal waves [9], several other NEMS interactions [10]. Exchange of information between bacteria via physical signals, referred to as "distant interactions", are investigated in [11]. Bacterial NEMS are a particular case of NEMS occurring in nature (in plants, animals, and fungi). Along with the chemical signals of intracellular communications, NEMS play a significant role in the life of microorganisms, especially during critical and transitional periods [11].



[1] William T. Richards and Alfred L. Loomis, THE CHEMICAL EFFECTS OF HIGH FREQUENCY SOUND WAVES I. A PRELIMINARY SURVEY, Journal of the American Chemical Society 1927 49 (12), 3086-3100

[2] Jia Yi, Wang Bochu, Wang Xiujuan, Duan Chuanren, Yang Xiaocheng, Effect of sound stimulation on roots growth and plasmalemma H_-ATPase activity of chrysanthemum (Gerbera jamesonii), Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 27 (2003) 65-69

[3] Wang Bochu, Chen Xin, Wang Zhen, Fu Qizhong, Zhou Hao, Ran Liang, Biological effect of sound field stimulation on paddy rice seeds, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 32, Issue 1, 1 October 2003, Pages 29-34
[4] Yusuf Chisti, Sonobioreactors: using ultrasound for enhanced microbial productivity, TRENDS in Biotechnology Vol.21 No.2 February 2003

[5] O. Schlafer, T. Onyeche, H. Bormann, C. Schroder, M. Sievers, Ultrasound stimulation of micro-organisms for enhanced biodegradation, Ultrasonics 40 (2002) 25–29

[6] E. L. Carstensen, S. Z. Child, W. K. Law, D. R. Horowitz, and M. W. Miller, Cavitation as a mechanism for the biological effects of ultrasound on plant roots, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Volume 66, Issue 5, pp. 1285-1291 (1979)

[7] A.G. Gordon, Beneficial effects of ultrasound on plants—a review, Ultrasonics, Volume 9, Issue 2, April 1971, Pages 81-84, ISSN 0041-624X, 10.1016/0041-624X(71)90124-7.

[8] Krinker, M.; Goykadosh, A.; Einhorn, H.; , "On the possibility of transferring information with non-electromagnetic fields, the relation of spinning processes and encoding information and the hydrogen spin detector," Systems, Applications and Technology Conference (LISAT), 2012 IEEE Long Island , vol., no., pp.1-12, 4-4 May 2012, doi: 10.1109/LISAT.2012.6223212

[9] The Longevity, Flowering and Fire History of the Grasstrees Xanthorrhoea preissii and Kingia australis, Byron B. Lamont and Susan Downes, Journal of Applied Ecology , Vol. 16, No. 3 (Dec., 1979), pp. 893-899

[10] William C. Gough, THE CELLULAR COMMUNICATION PROCESS AND ALTERNATIVE MODES OF HEALING, Subtle Energies and Energy Medicine: An Interdeiciplinary Journal of Energetic & Informational Interactions, Volume 8, Issue 2, July 20, 1999.

[11] Oparka, Karl J,  Getting the message across: how do plant cells exchange macromolecular complexes?, Trends in Plant Science, 9, 1, 1360-1385, doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2003.11.001, 2004



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